## Electromagnetic Analysis

With the power of its technical software, GENETEK provides engineering solutions with the finite element method for the design, verification, and optimization of products by analyzing electromagnetic and electromechanical devices from power system equipment such as transformers, reactors, busbars, insulators, electric motors. In addition, possible causes of failures on equipment can be investigated by performing root cause analysis with simulations.

You can reduce the costs of your products, improve their performance and evaluate their reliability, thanks to the virtual laboratory opportunity we offer through the analyzes we are developing with our electrical engineer staff who continue their academic careers in their fields and always aim to increase their level of expertise. With finite element analysis, you can always be one step ahead in today’s rapidly developing competitive market.

Within the scope of the analysis, a finite element model is created after a detailed literature review on the subject. After the analyzes are carried out, the results are interpreted in the light of the knowledge learned from the literature review and presented to the customer in a technical report format. Please contact us for finite element analysis services.

### Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

It is very difficult to obtain electrical parameters for power system components such as electric and magnetic fields, distribution of currents flowing through conductors, distribution of current in the conductor cross-section, self and mutual inductance values, magnetic induction values. Analytical methods are often insufficient in obtaining these parameters, which are affected by many factors.

Finite element method, which is one of the numerical methods, provides significant advantages in performing such calculations in a short time and with high accuracy. With finite element analysis, it is possible to calculate electrical parameters and design optimization during the design phase of power systems. With the finite element method, a finite number of trihedral or tetrahedral elements are created on the model and Maxwell’s equations are applied to these elements, which form a mesh structure. Although this process is not analytically possible except for very simple structures, the process is simplified with programs that use numerical methods such as the finite element method. ### Transient Analysis

While performing the calculations with the finite element method, different solution methods can be used in three-dimensional, cartesian or cylindrical model geometries according to the requirements of the mathematical equations used for the calculation of the parameters aimed to be evaluated. These solution methods can be listed as transient analysis, eddy current analysis, magnetostatic analysis, and electrostatic analysis.

With transient analysis, the following parameters can be found in power system equipment’s.

• Calculation of time dependent electromagnetic flux distributions,
• Calculation of power losses in the core depending on time
• Calculation of power losses in current carrying conductors depending on time,
• Calculation of eddy current losses in metal structural components depending on time,
• Calculation of current distributions between conductors depending on time,
• Calculation of time dependent calculation of forces acting on model components ### Eddy Current Analysis

In eddy current analysis, steady state analysis is performed by taking into account the eddy effect. Unlike transient analysis, eddy analysis cannot detect a transient situation. If the determination of the transient region is not required within the scope of the analysis, eddy analysis can be used. In Eddy analysis, solutions are performed in the frequency domain. Although this solver has advantages and disadvantages compared to the time-dependent solver, both solution methods are frequently used in analysis.

With eddy current analysis, the following parameters can be found in power system equipment’s;

• Calculation of electromagnetic flux distributions.
• Calculation of power losses in the core.
• Calculation of power losses in current carrying conductors.
• Calculation of eddy current losses in metal structural components.
• Calculation of current distributions between conductors.
• Calculation of forces acting on model components
• Calculation of hot spots (hot-spots) caused by power losses ### Magnetostatic Analysis

Magnetostatic solver is used in static magnetic field analysis. This solver performs the analysis instantly without taking into account the eddy effect. Instead of a static magnetic field solver, time dependent analysis or eddy current analysis can also be performed. The ease of analysis of the static magnetic field solver is more advantageous in some cases.

With magnetostatic analysis, the following parameters can be found in power system equipment’s;

• Calculation of electromagnetic flux distributions
• Calculation of magnetic field intensity
• Calculation of inductances
• Calculation of forces acting on model components ### Electrostatic Analysis

In the magnetostatic analysis, the electric field distribution and capacitance values in the model can be calculated. This solution method should be used to examine the systems in terms of the electric field intensity. With electrostatic analysis, the electric field and equipotential distributions of the systems operating under high voltage, examples of which are given below, can be examined.

• Insulator
• Bushing
• Power cable
• Surge arrester
• Connection terminal
• Busbar
• Transformer
• Reactor

Depending on the analysis results obtained, the optimum design of the isolation system can be realized. Solutions can be evaluated for the problems observed or likely to be observed in the field of these systems. Applications such as confirming jump and approach distances, optimizing costs by changing the material type are possible with analyzes. ### Transformer Analysis

With the finite element analysis of components such as power and distribution transformers, the parameters given below can be examined.

• Calculation of magnetic induction in the core
• Calculation of core losses
• Calculation of leakage reactance
• Calculation of short-circuit impedance
• Calculation of electromagnetic flux distributions
• Evaluation of winding losses in case of loading with harmonic currents
• Calculation of short-circuit current and electrodynamic forces
• Calculation of eddy current losses in metal structural components
• Calculation of current distribution between parallel windings
• Evaluation of the effect of transposition process in transformers with parallel winding structure
• Parametric evaluation of properties such as losses and short-circuit impedance according to winding design parameters
• Evaluation of extra losses in coils due to eddy, skin and proximity effects
• Calculation of inrush current
• Calculation of the electric field distribution between the windings
• Calculation of winding capacitances
• Calculation of tank losses
• Calculation of the magnetic field around the transformer
• Calculation of electric field distribution in transformer bushings according to its position on the tank ### Power Cable Analysis

With the finite element analysis of power cables, the parameters given below can be examined.

• Evaluation of cables in terms of electric field.
• Calculations of current carrying capacity of cables according to operating conditions
• Calculations of the magnetic field occured around the cable according to the current carried
• Calculations of current and voltages occurring on the screen according to the cable screen grounding type
• Calculations of electrodynamic forces in case of short circuit
• Calculations the voltage drop on the cable
• Calculation of inductance, capacitance and AC resistances
• Calculation of impedance matrix including core, screen and armor
• Calculation of frequency dependent eddy losses
• Calculations of screen voltages, screen currents, current distribution imbalance and voltage drop imbalance in systems with many parallel cables
• Calculations of electrical parameters in cable systems with other systems next to them
• Calculation of electrical parameters of cables when they are loaded with harmonic currents
• Evaluation of the effect of distance between parallel cables, phase sequence and layout of cables on cable parameters
• Calculation of eddy losses in case the cables are on the cable tray
• Evaluation of electric field distribution in cable terminals and cable splices depending on design parameters
• Evaluation of electric field distribution due to structural faults in cable terminals and cable splices
• Evaluation of electric field distribution in cable terminals and cable splices depending on application properties ### Busbar Analysis

With the finite element analysis of busbar systems, the parameters given below can be examined.

• Calculation of forces on busbar conductors in case of short circuit
• Calculation of current density distribution in the busbar
• Calculation of losses due to the skin effect occurring in the busbar conductor
• Calculation of eddy losses created by high-frequency current components when the busbar is operated with harmonic currents.
• Calculation of losses due to eddy effect in the frame of the busbar
• Calculation of current distributions on conductors in parallel busbar systems
• Calculation of inductance and impedance
• Calculation of magnetic field intensity around busbar systems
• Calculation of electric field distribution between busbar conductors
• Evaluation of thermal performance in case of loading with harmonic currents

These calculations can be made according to the phase sequence of the conductors used in the busbars, and the harmonic currents and the degree of loading. Thanks to the analysis results obtained, parameters such as optimum phase sequence, number of conductors to be used, maximum harmonic current and degree of loadability can be evaluated. While these analyzes provide benefits to busbar manufacturers at the design stage, they also provide advantages in the design of systems where energy will be transferred by busbar. ### Insulator and Bushing Analysis

With the finite element analysis of components such as insulators and bushings, the parameters given below can be examined.

• Calculation of equipotential and electric field distribution in insulator and bushing models
• Calculation of electric field distribution in insulators depending on the design parameters
• Calculation of the electric field occurring in the model according to the material properties and the change in the sensitive points of the geometry
• Calculation of electric field in the off-axis bushing model
• Calculation of electric field in the bushing model with an air gap inside
• Calculation of forces in short circuit

In the analysis, the problems observed or likely to be observed in the field can be modeled and the response of the system in these cases can be predicted. ### Reactor Analysis

With the finite element analysis of reactors, the parameters given below can be examined.

• Calculation of electromagnetic flux distributions
• Calculation of magnetic induction in the core
• Calculation of inductance
• Calculation of losses according to air gap distribution
• Calculation of losses due to fringe flux according to winding position
• Calculation of eddy effect losses according to conductor geometry
• Calculation of power losses in the core
• Calculation of inductance in air-core reactors
• Calculation of the electric field distribution between the windings
• Calculation of current distributions in reactors with parallel conductors ### Script Kod Usage

In the analyzes performed with the finite element method, the analysis process can be difficult depending on the model. In this case, script codes can be created to solve the problem and analyzes can be run with these codes. The following items can be shown as an example of the operations performed by script codes.

• Modeling of detailed winding model geometry in transformers
• Performing coil definitions of detailed winding model in transformers in the program
• Calculation of parameters such as eddy losses, average magnetic induction and current distribution on each winding in transformers or reactors
• Creation of model geometry in air-gap reactors
• Processing field calculation operations into the program as a formulaIn this context, applications that would take a very long time can be carried out in a short time.  